Ethereum Q&A: What is Metropolis?

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What are Metropolis and Constantinople? How are the stages of Ethereum development planned? Will there be a switch from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake? What is the difficulty bomb? NOTE: This video was recorded several months ago, but is being published on what was (until recently) the scheduled activation date for the Constantinople hard fork -- phase two of Metropolis -- of October 30th. The Byzantium hard fork -- phase one of Metropolis -- has since been implemented. However, the Constantinople hard fork was postponed again to "early 2019." Also, the plans to transition to pure proof-of-stake through a hybrid system was changed due to the decision to deprecate Casper FFG in favour of another hybrid update & merged release called "Casper V2," and on a different timescale. https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/master/specs/beacon-chain.md This question is from the MOOC 9.7 session, which took place on March 30th 2018. If you want early-access to talks and a chance to participate in the monthly live Q&As with Andreas, become a patron: https://www.patreon.com/aantonop RELATED: The Lion and the Shark: Divergent Evolution in Cryptocurrency - https://youtu.be/d0x6CtD8iq4 Investing in Education instead of Speculation - https://youtu.be/6uXAbJQoZlE Ethereum, ICOs, and Rocket Science - https://youtu.be/OWI5-AVndgk Slush17 Panel: Farewell to Centralised Data - https://youtu.be/ul0aGzF-v5c Blockchain vs. Bullshit: Thoughts On The Future of Money - https://youtu.be/SMEOKDVXlUo Why I'm writing 'Mastering Ethereum' - https://youtu.be/So6WERp7vLY Smart contract platforms - https://youtu.be/XU8Bc5oxneE Impact of smart contracts on law and accounting - https://youtu.be/K-TRzuPwJCc The legality of smart contracts - https://youtu.be/eKfnmxSmVF0 Gas and resource allocation - https://youtu.be/HwUJIGlHFes Intrinsic vs. extrinsic assets - https://youtu.be/KDtfFNZy9xg Altcoins and specialisation - https://youtu.be/b_Yhr8h6xnA Ether, ICOs, and securities - https://youtu.be/guBNLSsnAiA Unstoppable code - https://youtu.be/AQx3E3F8Kz4 Airdrop coins and privacy implications - https://youtu.be/JHRnqJJ0rhc Initial coin offerings (ICOs) - https://youtu.be/Q5R8KuxV4A0 The token ICO explosion - https://youtu.be/vdaW8NtJXuQ 'Coin' and 'token' terminology - https://youtu.be/WjWkttUkm58 ICOs and responsible investment - https://youtu.be/C8UdbvrWyvg ICOs and financial regulation - https://youtu.be/Plu_WX3Gs8E ICOs, disruption, and self-regulation - https://youtu.be/yfjgcI8xX3A Scams, gambling, and regulation - https://youtu.be/fTI88YrN1UE ICOs and pyramid schemes - https://youtu.be/8HYWWP1QU7Q Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and IOTA - https://youtu.be/lfgMnbb5JeM Scaling and "Satoshi's vision" - https://youtu.be/Ub2LoTcYV54 "Blockchain, not Bitcoin " - https://youtu.be/r2f0HlaRdgo Reflections on the last five years - https://youtu.be/NoCi64uaFT0 Andreas M. Antonopoulos is a technologist and serial entrepreneur who has become one of the most well-known and respected figures in bitcoin. Follow on Twitter: @aantonop https://twitter.com/aantonop Website: https://antonopoulos.com/ He is the author of two books: “Mastering Bitcoin,” published by O’Reilly Media and considered the best technical guide to bitcoin; “The Internet of Money,” a book about why bitcoin matters. Subscribe to the channel to learn more about Bitcoin & open blockchains; click on the red bell to enable notifications about new videos! MASTERING BITCOIN, 2nd Edition: https://amzn.to/2xcdsY9 Translations of MASTERING BITCOIN: https://bitcoinbook.info/translations-of-mastering-bitcoin/ THE INTERNET OF MONEY, v1: https://amzn.to/2ykmXFs THE INTERNET OF MONEY, v2: https://amzn.to/2IIG5BJ Translations of THE INTERNET OF MONEY: Spanish, 'Internet del Dinero' (v1) - https://amzn.to/2yoaTTq French, 'L'internet de l'argent' (v1) - https://www.amazon.fr/Linternet-largent-Andreas-M-Antonopoulos/dp/2856083390 Russian, 'Интернет денег' (v1) - https://www.olbuss.ru/catalog/ekonomika-i-biznes/korporativnye-finansy-bankovskoe-delo/internet-deneg Vietnamese, 'Internet Của Tiền Tệ' (v1) - https://alphabooks.vn/khi-tien-len-mang MASTERING ETHEREUM (Q4): https://amzn.to/2xdxmlK Music: "Unbounded" by Orfan (https://www.facebook.com/Orfan/) Outro Graphics: Phneep (http://www.phneep.com/) Outro Art: Rock Barcellos (http://www.rockincomics.com.br/)